A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of a fast moving exhaust from within a rocket engine. The exhaust is formed from propellant which is carried within the rocket prior to its release. The thrust is due to Newton's 3rd Law of Motion. Often the term rocket is also used to mean a rocket engine.
In military terminology, a rocket generally uses solid propellant and is unguided. These rockets can be fired by ground-attack aircraft at fixed targets such as buildings, or can be launched by ground forces at other ground targets. During the Vietnam era, there were also air launched unguided rockets that carried a nuclear payload designed to attack aircraft formations in flight.
In military terminology, a missile, by contrast, can use either solid or liquid propellant, and has a guidance system.
Historically, rockets were first developed by the Chinese as early as B.C. 300, using gunpowder. These were initially developed for entertainment, the precursors to modern fireworks, but were later adapted for warfare in the 11th century. Because the pressures on the rocket walls are lower, the use of rockets in warfare preceded the use of the gun, which required a higher level of metal technology. It was in this role that rockets first became known to Europeans following their use by Ottomans at the siege of Constantinople in 1453. For several more centuries they remained curiosities to those in the West.
At the end of the 18th century, rockets were used militarily in India against the British by the Mahrattas. The British then took up the practice and developed them further during the 19th century. The major figure in the field at this time was William Congreve. From there, the use of military rockets spread throughout Europe. The rockets' red glare helped to inspire the US national anthem.
Early rockets were highly inaccurate. Without any spinning up of the rocket, nor any gambling of the thrust, they had a strong tendency to veer sharply off course. The early British Congreve rockets reduced this tendency somewhat by attaching a long stick to the end of a rocket (similar to modern bottle rockets) to make it harder for the rocket to change course. The largest of the Congreve rockets was the 32 pound (14.5 kg) Carcass, which had a 15 foot (4.6 m) stick. Originally, sticks were mounted on the side, but this was later changed to mounting in the center of the rocket, reducing drag and enabling the rocket to be more accurately fired from a segment of pipe.
The accuracy problem was mostly solved in 1844 when William Hale modified the rocket design so that thrust was slightly vectored to cause the rocket to spin along its axis of travel like a bullet. The Hale rocket removed the need for a rocket stick, travelled further due to reduced air resistance, and was far more accurate.
Early rockets were also remarkably inefficient. Modern rockets were born when, after receiving a grant in 1917 from the Smithsonian Institution, Robert Goddard attached a de Laval nozzle to a rocket engine's combustion chamber, doubling the thrust and enormously raising the efficiency, giving the real possibility of practical space travel.
Saturday, January 30, 2010
Posted by Dimitree at 2:14 AM
Friday, January 22, 2010
The film begins with a performance of Therukoothu, a street play of Tamil Nadu, with the folk art showing the last minutes of the Chola King's reign is shown to the masses. Then audience is taken to 1279 with the death of the Chola dynasty and people are being driven out of their kingdom by the Pandyas in southern India. To escape from them and save the life of his successor, the Chola emperor sends his son, along with his people to a secret territory unknown to his enemies. The prince is seen leaving along the side of the chosen who is made responsible to safe guard the prince and the rest of the people. The Cholas also take away with them an idol sacred to the Pandyas, which angers them even more. To capture the escaped Cholas and retrieve their idol, the Pandyas extend their invasion to the unexplored territories which the Cholas have covered with their prince, but eventually fail in their invasion.
Several centuries later in 2009, Indian archaeologists continue searching for the existence of the Chola empire based on clues left by the ancient Pandyan warriors. But all the archaeologists, who attempt to search for the lost land disappear during the search missions. Archaeologist Chandramouli (Pratap Pothan) is the most recent person to have reportedly traced the empire but he also fails to return from his mission.
The Indian government organizes a search expedition led by officer Anitha Pandiyan (Reemma Sen) to find Chandramouli and the Chola Empire with assistance from the Indian army led by Ravisekharan (Azhagam Perumal). They meet the archaelogist, Lavanya (Andrea Jeremiah), the estranged daughter of the missing archaeologist Chandramouli and she assists Anitha and gives crucial documents prepared by her father on the Chola dynasty with instructions on the route to reach the destination. She also joins the expedition since her insight is considered essential for the success of the project.
Along with the army, Anitha employs a group of porters headed by Sukumaran(Karthi Sivakumar), to transport the luggages along the course of the journey. He ogles both the women and has naughty confrontations with them. The crew embark on a ship journey leading them to an island, Min-gua, near Vietnam. On the way, they are met with the seven traps set by the Cholas: sea creatures, cannibals, warriors, snakes, hunger, quick sand and a village. Many porters and army men are killed on their way.
Sukumaran, Anitha and Lavanya get separated from the others. They reach the village where they get subjected to some black magic. They nearly go mad before finally reaching the remaining ruins of the Chola dynasty. The three of them find an ethnic isolated primitive Tamil group ruled by a Chola king (R. Parthiban). The king and his people are in hiding, awaiting the arrival of the fabled messenger whom they believe will bring glory and prosperity back to their land. The king and the Chosen one consult greater gods for signs and orders Sukumaran, Anitha and Lavanya to be burnt alive as sacrifice to their gods.
At this point, Anitha tells the king that she is the messenger he had been eagerly awaiting from present cholas in homeland and had to disguise herself as an archaeologist to find the lost civilization. Sukumaran and Lavanya are taken as slaves. Anitha is given a chance to prove herself as the messenger. She tries to woo the king with her physical beauty. Anitha convinces the Chola king that the message she brought to him is to march towards the homeland on a particular day with his people and he would be crowned a proper king instead of hiding in dark caves. Since King has no way of knowing the real happenings back at homeland,makes himself believe the message. He suspects her bona fides since none of Anitha's actions match the qualities of the messenger described by his ancestors, who predicted that the messenger will get ill treated at first, but then they will help out the local tribe and this will be met by the arrival of rain. But Anitha convinces the king half heartedly.
Anitha finally exposes her identity and the real intention of visiting this civilization. She is the heiress of the Pandyan Dynasty. For generations, her family has been trying to find the whereabouts of the Chola prince and his people who escaped with the Pandya idol. She is here to extract her revenge on the Cholas who stole their sacred idol. The Chola king is shattered for having believed in Anitha as his true messenger and tries to eliminate her. She escapes from the cave and joins the army outside which is also led by Pandyas. The Cholas are at war once again with the Pandyas. The king has to battle against the army to save his people and his son. He also finds that Sukumaran is the true messenger - the chosen one who would save the Cholas from the clutches of Anitha and the army.
They fight bravely but the Cholas lose and are taken prisoners. Their women are molested and raped by the army and the king is killed. The story ends with Sukumaran saving a little Chola boy and the remaining Cholas by escaping into the forest. The Chola prince leaves along side Sukumaran,the new king. The final scene emphasizes that history will repeat itself, prompting that the Chola dynasty will still live on.
Posted by Dimitree at 2:21 AM
Wednesday, January 20, 2010
An interesting reflection: Slow Down Culture………
It's been 18 years since I joined Volvo, a Swedish company. Working for them
has proven to be an interesting experience. Any project here takes 2 years
to be finalized, even if the idea is simple and brilliant. It's a rule.
Globalize processes have caused in us (all over the world) a general sense
of searching for immediate results. Therefore, we have come to possess a
need to see immediate results. This contrasts greatly with the slow
movements of the Swedish. They, on the other hand, debate, debate, debate,
hold x quantity of meetings and work with a slowdown scheme. At the end,
this always yields better results.
Said in another words:
1. Sweden is about the size of San Pablo, a state in Brazil.
2. Sweden has 2 million inhabitants.
3. Stockholm has 500,000 people.
4. Volvo, Escania, Ericsson, Electrolux, Nokia are some of its renowned
companies. Volvo supplies the NASA.
The first time I was in Sweden, one of my colleagues picked me up at the
hotel every morning. It was September, bit cold and snowy. We would arrive
early at the company and he would park far away from the entrance (2000
employees drive their car to work). The first day, I didn't say anything,
either the second or third. One morning I asked, "Do you have a fixed
parking space? I've noticed we park far from the entrance even when there
are no other cars in the lot." To which he replied, "Since we're here early
we'll have time to walk, and whoever gets in late will be late and need a
place closer to the door. Don't you think so?" Imagine my face.
Nowadays, there's a movement in Europe named Slow Food. This movement
establishes that people should eat and drink slowly, with enough time to
taste their food, spend time with the family, friends, without rushing. Slow
Food is against its counterpart: the spirit of Fast Food and what it stands
for as a lifestyle. Slow Food is the basis for a bigger movement called Slow
Europe, as mentioned by Business Week. Basically, the movement questions the
sense of "hurry" and "craziness" generated by globalization, fuelled by the
desire of "having in quantity" (life status) versus "having with quality",
"life quality" or the quality of being".
French people, even though they work only 35 hours per week, are more
productive than Americans or British. Germans have established 29 hour
workweeks and have seen their productivity been driven up by 20%. This slow
attitude has brought forth the US's attention, pupils of the fast and the
"do it now!". This no-rush attitude doesn't represent doing less or having a
lower productivity. It means working and doing things with greater quality,
perfection, with more attention to detail and less stress. It means reducing
rejects and wastage. It means re-establishing family values, friends, free
and leisure time. Taking the "now", present and concrete, versus the
"global", undefined and anonymous future. It means taking humans' essential
values, the simplicity of living. It stands for a less coercive work
environment, more happy, lighter and more productive where humans enjoy
doing what they know best how to do.
It's time to stop and think on how companies need to develop serious quality
with no-rush that will increase productivity and the quality of products and
services, without losing the essence of spirit.
In the movie, Scent of a Woman, there's a scene where Al Pacino asks a girl
to dance and she replies, "I can't, my boyfriend will be here any minute
now". To which Al responds, "A life is lived in an instant". Then they dance
to a tango.
Many of us live our lives running behind time, but we only reach it when we
die of a heart attack or in a car accident rushing to be on time. Others are
so anxious of living the future that they forget to live the present, which
is the only time that truly exists. We all have equal time throughout the
world. No one has more or less. The difference lies in how each one of us
does with our time. We need to live each moment.
As John Lennon said, "Life is what happens to you while you're busy making
Posted by Dimitree at 1:11 AM
Sunday, January 17, 2010
1) The liquid inside young coconuts can be used as a substitute for Blood plasma.
2) No piece of paper can be folded in half more than seven (7) times. Oh go ahead...I'll wait...
3) Donkeys kill more people annually than plane crashes or shark attacks. (So, watch it ).
4) You burn more calories sleeping than you do watching television.
5) Oak trees do not produce acorns until they are fifty (50) years of age or older.
6) The first product to have a bar code was Wrigley's gum.
7) The King of Hearts is the only king WITHOUT A MOUSTACHE.
8) American Airlines saved $40,000 in 1987 by eliminating one (1) olive from each salad served in first-class.
9) Venus is the only planet that rotates clockwise (Since Venus is normally associated with women, what does this tell you!)
(That women are going the 'right' direction...?)
10) Apples, not caffeine, are more efficient at waking you up in the morning.
11) Dentists have recommended that a toothbrush
be kept at least six (6) feet away from
a toilet to avoid airborne particles
resulting from the flush.
Most dust particles in your house are made from DEAD SKIN!
12) The first owner of the Marlboro Company died of lung cancer. So did the first 'Marlboro Man'.
13) Walt Disney was afraid OF MICE!
14) PEARLS MELT IN VINEGAR!
15) The three most valuable brand names on earth: Marlboro, Coca Cola, and Budweiser, in that order.
16) It is possible to lead a cow upstairs... but, not downstairs.
17) Dentists have recommended that a toothbrush be kept at least six (6) feet away from a toilet to avoid airborne particles resulting from the flush.
Posted by Dimitree at 10:32 PM
Wednesday, January 13, 2010
Would like to share a few words about the SOLAR ECLIPSE to come on 15.1.10. The main stars afflicted are::
This is a very long annular solar eclipse and a unique eclipse - to happen on January 15, 2010.
The next such a long duration solar eclipse will occur only on 23rd December 3043 AD
In fact, if we take the total duration of the eclipse phenomenon, it is between 11:06 hours IST to 15:25 hours IST - a total of more than 4 hours!.
We give below some points which are good to be followed during this period from good health point of view::
1) Avoid eating solid foods after 7 a.m. IST (at least 4 hours before the eclipse duration).
2) Fast during the duration of the eclipse. Even you are advised not drink water. Do maximum meditation and prayers by sitting on a piece of cloth and facing east direction.
4) Any activity that requires intense focus of mind can be performed during eclipse and you will see the good results for yourself.
5) If possible take bath before and the end of the eclipse.
6) Those who do not have both the parents or one parent - you may think of that departed parent and pray for his/her blessings.
7) If it is feasible do donate food or clothes as charity to a few people after the eclipse.
8) VERY IMPORTANT - If any of your family members or relatives are pregnant -- please inform them to stay in the house during the eclipse period and close all the windows and doors. Safety measures to see that neither the Sun and sun rays must not fall on them -- since old texts say that these rays could afflict the child in the womb.
Kindly share this message to all near and dear ones and friends.
Posted by Dimitree at 5:56 AM
Monday, January 11, 2010
Albert Einstein's brain has often been a subject of research and speculation. Einstein's brain was removed within seven hours of his death. The brain has attracted attention because of Einstein's reputation for being one of the foremost geniuses of the 20th century, and apparent regularities or irregularities in the brain have been used to support various ideas about correlations in neuroanatomy with general or mathematical intelligence. Scientific studies have suggested that regions involved in speech and language are smaller, while regions involved with numerical and spatial processing are larger. Other studies have suggested an increased number of Gilael cells in Einstein's brain.
Einstein's brain was preserved after his death in 1955, but this fact was not revealed until 1978.
Einstein's brain was removed, weighed and preserved by Thomas Stoltz Harvey, the pathologist who performed the autopsy on Einstein. He claimed he hoped that cytoarchitectonics would reveal useful information. Harvey injected 10% formalin through the internal carotid arteries and afterwards suspended the intact brain in 10% formalin. Harvey photographed the brain from many angles. He then dissected it into roughly 240 blocks (each about 10 cm3) and encased the segments in a plastic-like material called collodion. Harvey may also have removed Einstein's eyes, and given them to Henry Abrams. He was apparently fired from his position at Princeton Hospital shortly thereafter for refusing to relinquish the organs.
Posted by Dimitree at 2:47 AM
Thursday, January 7, 2010
Before we take a closer look at what the Web Services Resource Framework (WSRF) is, we need to have a basic understanding of how Web Services work (so we can better appreciate how WSRF extends Web Services). If you're already familiar with Web Services, you can safely skip this section.
For quite a while now, there has been a lot of buzz about "Web Services," and many companies have begun to rely on them for their enterprise applications. So, what exactly are Web Services? To put it quite simply, they are yet another distributed computing technology (like CORBA, RMI, EJB, etc.). They allow us to create client/server applications.For example, let's suppose I keep a database with up-to-date information about weather in the United States, and I want to distribute that information to anyone in the world. To do so, I could publish the weather information through a Web Service that, given a ZIP code, will provide the weather information for that ZIP code
Posted by Dimitree at 11:25 PM